Navigating Legal Considerations for Fundraising and Investment in Indian Startups


The Indian startup industry has expanded enormously in recent years, with several startups emerging as unicorns, attracting significant investments from domestic and foreign investors. In 2021, India had 52 unicorns, with a total valuation of $168 billion. While the Indian startup ecosystem offers numerous opportunities for investors, fundraising and investment in startups involve several legal considerations that must be carefully navigated. This article’s objective is to provide an overview of the legal considerations for fundraising and investment in Indian startups, including the legal framework, types of investment, due diligence, intellectual property considerations, employment law considerations, and taxation considerations.

I. Legal Framework for Fundraising and Investment in Indian Startups

The legal framework for fundraising and investment in Indian startups is primarily governed by the Companies Act, 2013 and Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) regulations. The Companies Act provides for incorporating and regulating companies in India, including startups. SEBI regulations govern investments in Indian securities and regulate the activities of various market intermediaries. Startups can raise funds through various instruments, including equity, convertible notes, and debentures.

Investors must comply with SEBI regulations, which include registration requirements and disclosure norms. SEBI has introduced several regulatory reforms in recent years to promote investment in startups, including the SEBI (Issue of Capital and Disclosure Requirements) Regulations, 2018, which provide for a simpler disclosure regime for startups going public, and the SEBI (Angel Funds) Regulations, 2013, which provide a regulatory framework for angel funds investing in startups.

II. Types of Investment in Indian Startups

Investments in Indian startups can be made through angel investments, venture capital, private equity, and initial public offerings (IPOs). Each type of investment has its legal considerations, including compliance with SEBI regulations, shareholder agreements, and valuation issues.

Angel investments are typically made by high-net-worth individuals (HNIs) or angel funds in exchange for equity in the startup. Angel investments are usually made in the early stages of a startup’s life cycle and are critical for seed funding. Angel investors often invest in startups based on the founder’s vision and potential rather than the startup’s financial performance.

Venture capital (VC) firms invest in startups with traction and growth potential. VC firms usually invest in startups with seed funding and a clear product or service offering. VC firms often invest in startups through multiple funding rounds, with each round having its terms and conditions.

Private equity (PE) firms invest in established startups looking to expand their operations or enter new markets. PE firms typically invest in startups with a proven business model and a clear path to profitability. PE firms often acquire a significant stake in the startup and may take an active role in its management.

IPOs are the ultimate goal for most startups, as they provide an opportunity for the startup’s founders and early investors to cash out their investments. IPOs involve a complex regulatory compliance process and require significant financial and legal due diligence.

III. Due Diligence in Fundraising and Investment

Due diligence is an essential process in fundraising and investment in Indian startups. It involves examining the company’s legal, financial, and operational aspects. Legal, due diligence involves the review of contracts, regulatory compliance, and intellectual property issues. Investors must ensure that the startup complies with all applicable laws and regulations, including labour and employment, taxation, and environmental laws.

The financial due diligence involves the review of the startup’s financial statements, tax returns, and other financial records. The operational due diligence involves the review of the startup’s operations, including its supply chain, manufacturing process, and distribution network. Due diligence is critical for investors to assess the risks and potential of the startup.

IV. Intellectual Property Considerations for Startups

Intellectual property (IP) protection is crucial for startups as it enables them to protect their inventions, trademarks, and copyrights. IP protection is particularly important for startups as they often have innovative and unique ideas that must be protected from competitors. IP protection can also help startups attract investors, as investors tend to favour companies with a strong IP portfolio.

Types of IP Protection in India

In India, startups can protect their IP through various means, including patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets. Patents are granted for new and innovative products or processes. Trademarks are granted for brand names, logos, and other distinguishing marks. Copyrights protect original literary, artistic, musical, and other creative works. Trade secrets, such as customer lists and manufacturing processes, are confidential information essential for a company’s success.

Legal Considerations for IP Protection in Fundraising and Investment

During due diligence, investors must consider the startup’s IP portfolio, licensing agreements, and infringement issues. They should examine whether the startup has the necessary IP protection in place and whether there are any ongoing disputes or litigation related to IP infringement. Investors should assess the startup’s licence agreements to ensure agreements of the startup to make sure they comply with all applicable rules and laws. It is essential to ensure the startup has obtained all the necessary licenses and permits to operate its business.

Startups should take necessary steps to protect their IP, including filing patents, registering trademarks and copyrights, and entering into licensing agreements. Startups should also ensure their employees sign confidentiality and non-compete agreements to protect their trade secrets. IP protection should be a part of the startup’s business strategy, and they should seek legal advice to ensure that they comply with all applicable laws and regulations.

V. Employment Law Considerations for Startups

Startups must comply with several employment laws in India, including the Industrial Disputes Act of 1947, the Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act of 1952, and the Payment of Bonus Act of 1965. Startups must have robust employment contracts and agreements, including stock option plans and intellectual property agreements.

Key Employment Law Considerations for Startups

Employee Contracts: Startups must have employment contracts in place that outline the terms and conditions of employment, including job duties, compensation, benefits, and termination provisions. Startups should ensure that their employment contracts comply with applicable laws and regulations and provide for necessary protections.

Stock Options: Startups often offer stock options to their employees as a part of their compensation package. These options give employees the right to purchase the company’s shares at a predetermined price. Startups should have a stock option plan that complies with applicable laws and regulations and provides necessary protections.

Intellectual Property Agreements: Startups should have intellectual property agreements with their employees to ensure they own the rights to any intellectual property created during their employment. These agreements should outline the scope of the employee’s work and provide for necessary protections.

Legal Considerations for Employment Law in Fundraising and Investment

During due diligence, investors should examine the startup’s employment contracts, stock option plans, and intellectual property agreements. They should ensure that the startup complies with all applicable laws and regulations and that these agreements provide necessary protections.

Startups should seek legal advice to ensure their employment contracts, stock option plans, and intellectual property agreements comply with all applicable laws and regulations. They should also ensure their agreements are well-drafted and provide necessary protections.

VI. Taxation Considerations for Startups

Startups in India are subject to various tax considerations that they need to consider to ensure compliance with the law and minimize tax liabilities. The key taxation considerations for startups include income tax, goods and services tax (GST), and transfer pricing.

Income Tax: All startups in India are required to pay income tax on their taxable income at the rates prescribed by the Income Tax Act 1961. The tax rate depends on the entity’s nature, the amount of taxable income, and other factors, such as tax incentives or exemptions that may apply to the startup. Startups should ensure that they maintain accurate books of accounts and comply with all the tax filing and payment requirements under the Income Tax Act.

Goods and Services Tax (GST): In India, a comprehensive tax known as GST is imposed on the supply of goods and services. All startups engaged in the supply of goods or services must register for GST and comply with the tax filing and payment requirements under the GST law. The GST rate depends on the nature of the goods or services supplied and the state where the startup is located.

Transfer Pricing: Transfer pricing refers to the pricing of goods and services between related parties, such as a startup and its parent company or subsidiaries. The Income Tax Act requires startups to ensure that the pricing of such transactions is at arm’s length and in compliance with the transfer pricing regulations. Startups should maintain accurate records of all such transactions and comply with transfer pricing regulations.

Tax Benefits for Startups: The Indian government provides various tax benefits and incentives to startups to encourage entrepreneurship and innovation. Some key tax benefits available to startups in India include exemption from tax for 3 years from the date of incorporation, lower tax rates under the Income Tax Act for small and medium-sized enterprises, and tax holidays for startups engaged in certain sectors such as biotechnology.

Legal Considerations for Taxation in Fundraising and Investment: Startups must ensure that they comply with all the legal requirements under the tax laws concerning fundraising and investment. For instance, startups that issue shares to investors must comply with the Income Tax Act provisions, which prescribe the tax implications of such transactions. Similarly, startups that receive funding from foreign investors must comply with the provisions of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, which regulates the inflow and outflow of foreign currency.


In conclusion, startups in India need to consider various legal considerations concerning fundraising and investment, intellectual property protection, employment law, and taxation. Startups must seek legal advice from experienced lawyers to ensure legal compliance and minimize legal risks. Startups may lay a strong foundation for development and success in the fiercely competitive Indian startup environment by adhering to best practices and observing the law.


What is the Indian startup ecosystem like?

The Indian startup ecosystem has been growing rapidly over the past few years, with the government of India launching several initiatives to support and promote startups. The country has many startups in various sectors, including technology, healthcare, education, and e-commerce. A strong network of investors, incubators, accelerators, and mentors also supports the startup ecosystem in India.

What are the legal requirements for fundraising and investment in Indian startups?

In India, startups can raise funds through various sources, including venture capital, angel investors, crowdfunding, and bank loans. To comply with the legal requirements for fundraising and investment, startups need to register their businesses and obtain necessary licenses and permits. They must also comply with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) regulations and disclose information about their fundraising activities.

What are the types of investment available for Indian startups?

Indian startups can raise funds from various sources, including venture capital firms, angel investors, corporate investors, and crowdfunding platforms. Venture capital firms and angel investors are the most common funding sources for startups in India. Large corporations and global businesses have increasingly been seen as corporate investors in Indian startups in recent years.

What is due diligence, and why is it important?

Due diligence is conducting a comprehensive company investigation before investing in it. The process involves analyzing the financial and legal aspects of the company, including its financial statements, contracts, intellectual property, and legal compliance. Due diligence is important because it helps investors identify potential risks and challenges associated with the company and make informed investment decisions.

How can startups protect their intellectual property?

Startups can protect their intellectual property by obtaining patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets. Patents protect inventions, trademarks protect brand names and logos, copyrights protect creative works, and trade secrets protect confidential information. Startups can also enter into non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) and employment contracts with their employees to protect their intellectual property.

What are the key employment law considerations for startups in India?

Startups in India must comply with various employment laws, including minimum wage, labour, and social security laws. Startups also need proper employment contracts, including intellectual property ownership, termination, and confidentiality provisions. Startups offering employee stock options (ESOPs) must also comply with SEBI regulations and other legal requirements.

What are the taxation considerations for startups in India?

Startups in India need to comply with various tax laws, including income tax, goods and services tax (GST) and transfer pricing. The Indian government has launched many programmes to support startups, including tax benefits such as a tax holiday for the first three years of operation and a lower tax rate for small and medium-sized enterprises. Startups also need to comply with the legal requirements related to taxation in fundraising and investment.


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